The refugee question occupied centre stage at every political debate in Europe since 2015. Starting from the «long summer of migration», the polarization of opinions and attitudes towards asylum seekers among citizens of the European Union has grown increasingly. The divergence between hospitality and hostility has become evident in political reactions as well.
The focus of this book is on this polarization, on the positive and negative attitudes, representations and practices, as well as on the interactions, at the local level, between majority populations and asylum seekers in the context of the 2015-18 reception crisis.
This book has three objectives. First, it intends to examine public opinion towards asylum seekers and refugees through a European cross-national perspective.
Second, it explains the public opinion polarization by focusing on pro- and anti-migrant mobilization, and investigating the practices of hospitality and hostility in local communities.
The third objective is to understand asylum seekers' and refugees' own perceptions of receiving countries and their asylum systems. These issues are specifically debated in the Belgian case. The other national case studies include Germany, Sweden, Hungary, Greece and Italy, and have been chosen based on preliminary research on the policy system, public opinion, and geopolitical position.
This book represents the main output of the research project entitled «Public opinion, mobilizations and policies concerning asylum seekers and refugees in anti-immigrant times (Europe and Belgium)» supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO/BRAIN-be).
This book is a poweful contribution to the understanding of what may be called ther third phase of cooperation in criminal justice in the European Union. Prof. Perdro Caeiro, University of Coimbra.
Is international law universal? Can it be anything else than the will of the actors who are able to impose on others their values and interests? Beyond the strategic objectives that can be pursued - by a lawyer pleading before a court, a state representative operating in an international organization or addressing the general public, an author seeking recognition, or a citizen interested in the law - since international law cannot be interpreted objectively, can it at least be interpreted in a convincing and well-argued way? These are the questions that underlie this book, which, following a critical approach, emphasizes the profound ambivalence of international law.
International law appears to be torn between, on the one hand, the pursuit of a universalist ideal of justice and peace, and, on the other, the need to deal with power relations in a political context. From this perspective, it would be futile to claim to establish, and even less 'to discover', one single 'correct' interpretation of legal rules such as, for example, the right to self- determination, the principle of non-intervention or the prohibition of genocide. It is however possible to provide an overview of the main debates among states, other international actors or among legal scholars relating to the interpretation of the main rules of international law. In the book, these debates will be illustrated by references borrowed from popular culture and, in particular, from music and films.
The ambition of this book is to enable the reader, on the basis of these elements, to position himself or herself by selecting and defending the arguments that seem most convincing, and, more fundamentally, to understand the legal and political terms of the controversy...
This edited volume, which has been drafted in honour of Professor Telò's research career, offers the reader an overview of the various scientific debates that he has been involved in throughout his distinguished career. The aim was to highlight, contextualise and build on his most innovative contributions to each of these debates. The volume revolves around four thematic areas, each of which brings together a number of contributions that offer timely reflections on a given question or challenge covered by Professor Telò's research. The first section, 'Reflections on the Future of Social Democracy in Europe', brings together chapters on the efficiency and legitimacy crisis facing contemporary social democracies, be it at the European or national levels. The second section, 'Reflections on the Prospects for European Governance', offers the reader a cross-section of assessments on the state of the European polity, its politics and the policies that it produces, notably in the light of recent institutional reforms and crises. The third section, 'Reflections on the Implications of Multilateralism and Multipolarism for Europe', explores how both regional experiences in general and the EU's external action in particular have reacted to a rapidly changing international environment. The fourth and final section, 'Reflections on the Lessons drawn from Engaged Research in Europe', takes a step back and considers the role of the researcher in the evolving and challenging environment sketched out in the preceding sections. It focuses both on how to approach such a complex area of research as the EU as well as how to reconcile academic distance with societal engagement when working on controversial topics.
Between 2015 and 2020, the city centre of Brussels witnessed the creation of its fi rst major pedestrian zone, one of the largest urban projects in recent decades.
The boulevards between place Fontainas and place De Brouckère are now car free. New public spaces, greenery, benches and lighting have been installed, as well as new entrances for metro stations, two large bicycle parks and other facilities. Has the Brussels city centre finally done away with the car hegemony? Can the city centre be extended to become the centre of the Brussels metropolis where everyone can find his or her own place? This book presents scientific background to the issue and brings together in words and images the research carried out over the past four years by the Brussels Centre Observatory.
Tussen 2015 en 2020 kreeg de Brusselse binnenstad haar eerste grote voetgangerszone, één van de grootste stadsprojecten van de afgelopen decennia. Entre 2015 et 2020, le centre-ville de Bruxelles a vu se concrétiser sa première grande zone piétonne et se développer l'un des plus grands projets urbains des dernières décennies.
De lanen tussen het Fontainasplein en het Brouckèreplein werden autovrij. Er kwam nieuwe publieke ruimte met groen, zitbanken en verlichting, maar ook met nieuwe toegangen tot drie ondergrondse metrostations, twee fietsenstallingen en andere voorzieningen. Maakt het Brusselse stadscentrum komaf met Koning Auto ? Kan de binnen-stad uitbreiden om zo het centrum van de Brusselse metropool te worden waarin iedereen zich thuis kan voelen ? Dit boek brengt in woord en beeld het onderzoek samen van vier jaar Brussels Centre Observatory.
Les boulevards entre la place Fontainas et la place De Brouckère ont été piétonnisés. De nouveaux espaces publics, de la verdure, des bancs et de l'éclairage y ont été aménagés, ainsi que de nouvelles entrées pour les stations de métro, deux grands parkings vélo et d'autres équipements. Le centre-ville de Bruxelles est-il en train de sortir du « tout à la voiture » ? Peut-il s'élargir pour devenir le centre de la métropole bruxelloise dans lequel chacun peut trouver sa place ? Cet ouvrage rassemble en mots et en images les recherches menées depuis quatre ans par le Brussels Centre Observatory.
Criminal law has considerably evolved in the last few decades. A number of new trends have challenged the traditional features of "modern criminal law". One of the new trends affecting criminal justice systems is the so-called "Europeanisation process", which is the result of the growing intervention of the EU in the area of criminal Law. Another new trend which criminal law and other legal disciplines are facing is the increasingly blurred dividing line between legal categories.
Various dimensions of this unclear division between categories have been identified in legal literature, in particular between administrative and criminal law. This book aims to study the combination of the two abovementioned trends and their impact on criminal justice systems. The hazy line between administrative and criminal law has been around fora white and has Brown independently of the European Union.
Up until now, it has mainly been analysed at the national level in a sector by sector approach. This research aims to go beyond such an approach to the topic and sets a systematised assessment of the situation in motion. The main questions that this book tackles are whether and to what extent the EU contributes to the blurred line and whether it tries to restrict it, hold it in check and/or organise it.
In order to reflect upon such issues, the book is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on an analysis of selected case studies, namely different types of crimes where the EU plays an increasing rote : trafficking in human beings, terrorism, protection of the EU's financial interests, market abuse, environmental offences and competition. These case studies are ordered into four different categories based on how broad and significant the intervention of administrative measures/actors is in the fight against crime.
The second part of the book is of a more general nature. Following an article concerning the organisation of the coexistence of administrative and criminal law at the national level, the other contributions focus on the EU level and aim to assess the influence of the EU on the existence and development of the hazy line between administrative and criminal law. Most of them show that the EU somehow contributes to the lack of clarity.
They tend to identify the main reasons for this and the potential problems caused by the blurred line in terms of individual procedural safeguards and the effectiveness of the fight against crime. This book is the result of cooperation within an international team mainly composed of academics and researchers who are members of ECLAN (the European Criminal Law Academic Network) and of practitioners working at the national or EU level.
What happens when the European Union sets new rules for the provision of cross-border healthcare services that once were conceived for the population living on the national territory ? Does Europe destabilize national social solidarity ? Do actors that govern the healthcare system further or resist the Europeanization of their national healthcare system ? Taking Austria, a prototypical Bismarckian healthcare system, as an example, this book aims at answering these questions by looking at how actors navigate between national institutional constraints and European opportunities.
It presents how new rules on the provision of cross-border healthcare in the European Union have the potential of destabilizing national welfare boundaries. Taking a sociological approach to Europeanization, it is analysed if and how actors adapt to such new rules. An added value of the volume is to present the development of Austria's healthcare system in the "longue durée" through four political regime changes over the last 150 years, with European integration as the last wave of transformation to date.
It shows that cross-border healthcare provision is already a well integrated practice ; and how providers and payers of healthcare deal with European requirements and voice their policy preferences in the Brussels arena. Overall, it suggests both the flexibility and the resilience of the national models of welfare.